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It is particularly popular in Europe for coarse fishing. Weeds compete with the crop for moisture and nutrients, making them undesirable. Today, all such technologies, from entirely manual harvesting to entirely mechanized, are still in use to some degree, as appropriate to each farm's needs, although the thoroughly mechanized versions predominate, as they offer the lowest unit costs when scaled to large farm operations.  They are female inflorescences, tightly enveloped by several layers of ear leaves commonly called husks.  The process was later used in the cuisine of the American South to prepare corn for grits and hominy. In the 2010/2011 marketing year, about 29.1 million tonnes of DDGS were fed to US livestock and poultry. A biomass gasification power plant in Strem near Güssing, Burgenland, Austria, began in 2005.  Some Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, they would weaken and risk turning into Indians. The cost of transportation, production, and marketing are a large portion (80%) of the price of food in the United States. Accueil; Chalet; Activités; Disponibilités; Tarifs; Contact; Accueil; Chalet; Activités; Disponibilités; Tarifs; Contact Both conventional cross-breeding and genetic modification have succeeded in increasing output and reducing the need for cropland, pesticides, water and fertilizer. Whole ears of maize were often stored in corn cribs, and these whole ears are a sufficient form for some livestock feeding use. Certain varieties of maize have been bred to produce many additional developed ears. These early efforts were based on mass selection. United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. , Maize was introduced into the diet of non-indigenous Americans without the necessary cultural knowledge acquired over thousands of years in the Americas. In places outside the US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, corn often refers to maize in culinary contexts. This is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. , Because it is cold-intolerant, in the temperate zones maize must be planted in the spring. 2011. Modern technique plants maize in rows which allows for cultivation while the plant is young, although the hill technique is still used in the maize fields of some Native American reservations.  The magnitude of the influence that long nights have on the number of days that must pass before maize flowers is genetically prescribed and regulated by the phytochrome system. Another well-known example is the Field of Corn sculpture in Dublin, Ohio, where hundreds of concrete ears of corn stand in a grassy field. Maize leaf blight, maize northern leaf blight. ", This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 13:28. Case study – Maize (translated from Portuguese)", "Cultivated wetlands and emerging complexity in south-central Chile and long distance effects of climate change", "Identificación de maiz de vasijas recuperadas de la Patagonia noroccidental argentina", "Descifrando la historia ambiental de los archipiélagos de Aysén, Chile: El influjo colonial y la explotación económica-mercantil republicana (siglos XVI-XIX)", "The Maximum Leaf Number of the Maize Subspecies", "Ecology of Exotic Races of Maize. Many forms of maize are used for food, sometimes classified as various subspecies related to the amount of starch each has: This system has been replaced (though not entirely displaced) over the last 60 years by multivariable classifications based on ever more data. Class lollipopsida.order poales family poaceae genus zea .specie z mays , Ear of maize with irregular rows of kernels, While yellow maizes derive their color from lutein and zeaxanthin, in red-colored maizes, the kernel coloration is due to anthocyanins and phlobaphenes. Maize (/meɪz/ MAYZ; Zea mays subsp. Cochliobolus heterostrophus; this is the name for the sexual stage; the asexual stage is known as Bipolaris maydis (previously it was Drechslera maydis and before that Helminthosporium maydis).There are different races. , A fraction of the maize feedstock dry matter used for ethanol production is usefully recovered as DDGS (dried distillers grains with solubles). Most historians believe maize was domesticated in the Tehuacán Valley of Mexico. Shaw, 1978; Preferred Common Name. The stalk continues downward and is crumpled into a mangled pile on the ground, where it usually is left to become organic matter for the soil. In North America, fields are often planted in a two-crop rotation with a nitrogen-fixing crop, often alfalfa in cooler climates and soybeans in regions with longer summers. Answer to: What is the scientific name for maize? , Maize is a major source of both grain feed and fodder for livestock. The process is thought by some to have started 7,500 to 12,000 years ago. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Native Americans cleared large forest and grassland areas for the new crop. ), CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Binomial name When the tassel is mature and conditions are suitably warm and dry, anthers on the tassel dehisce and release pollen. These latter substances are synthesized in the flavonoids synthetic pathway from polymerization of flavan-4-ols by the expression of maize pericarp color1 (p1) gene which encodes an R2R3 myb-like transcriptional activator of the A1 gene encoding for the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (reducing dihydroflavonols into flavan-4-ols) while another gene (Suppressor of Pericarp Pigmentation 1 or SPP1) acts as a suppressor. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for the plant, mahiz. Heuzé V., Tran G., Edouard N., Lebas F., 2017. Maize. holcicola (streaky spot of sorghum and Sudan grass), Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (rice water weevil), Arthrobotrys dactyloides (antagonist: Nematodes), Bipolaris victoriae (Victoria blight of oats), Burkholderia cepacia (sour skin of onion), Coleomegilla maculata (beetle, Spotted ladybird), Haplothrips gowdeyi (gold-tipped tubular thrips), Mycosphaerella tassiana (antagonist of Botrytis cinerea), Neonectria radicicola (black root of strawberry), Pseudomonas fluorescens (pink eye: potato), Trichothecium roseum (fruit rot of tomato), Winthemia quadripustulata (tachina, red-tailed), Aleuroglyphus ovatus (brownlegged grain mite), Alternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot), Alternaria tenuissima (nailhead spot of tomato), Cathartus quadricollis (square-necked grain beetle), Chaetocnema aridula (flea beetle, cereal), Chilo orichalcociliellus (coastal stalk borer), Cochliobolus hawaiiensis (leaf spot: maize), Conoderus falli (wireworm, southern potato), Cynaeus angustus (larger black flour beetle), Euschistus heros (Neotropical brown stink bug), Gibberella intricans (damping-off of safflower), Graminella nigrifrons (blackfaced leafhopper), Heterodera sacchari (sugarcane cyst nematode), Laodelphax striatellus (small brown planthopper), Latheticus oryzae (longheaded flour beetle), Lepidoglyphus destructor (groceries, mite), Lepinotus reticulatus (booklouse, reticulatewinged), Melanoplus differentialis (differential grasshopper), Meloidogyne exigua (coffee root-knot nematode), Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (cotton, seed bug), Penicillium oxalicum (root rot: Sorghum spp. , Primary sequencing of the maize genome was completed in 2008. Northern armyworm, Oriental armyworm or Rice ear-cutting caterpillar (, Byerlee, Derek. DIMBOA is also responsible for the relative resistance of immature maize to the European corn borer (family Crambidae). © Copyright 2020 CAB International.  The second wave, about 2000 years ago, through the lowlands of South America.. This involved a large number of workers and associated social events (husking or shucking bees). Because of the relationship between fuel and maize, prices paid for the crop now tend to track the price of oil. The difference between the two is largely controlled by differences in just two genes, called grassy tillers-1 (gt1, A0A317YEZ1) and teosinte branched-1 (tb1, Q93WI2). Depending on soil texture, the lateral spread of a mature root system may be 3–4 feet on all sides of the plant and typically penetrates to depths of 5–6 feet (Figure 4.1), although depths of 8 feet are not unusual (Weaver 1926). This, in turn, results in farm acreage being diverted from other food crops to maize production. Maize has been a dietary staple grain in its native regions for thousands of years, and nowadays it is arguably the quintessential American crop.Though commonly known as "corn" in many English-speaking countries, the term "maize" - a Spanish adaptation of the indigenous Taíno word mahis - is still widely used in most parts of the world. Oryza sativa, Oryza glaberrima. , Maize is the domesticated variant of teosinte.  Because starch utilization in fermentation for ethanol production leaves other grain constituents more concentrated in the residue, the feed value per kg of DDGS, with regard to ruminant-metabolizable energy and protein, exceeds that of the grain.  The p1 gene encodes an Myb-homologous transcriptional activator of genes required for biosynthesis of red phlobaphene pigments, while the P1-wr allele specifies colorless kernel pericarp and red cobs, and unstable factor for orange1 (Ufo1) modifies P1-wr expression to confer pigmentation in kernel pericarp, as well as vegetative tissues, which normally do not accumulate significant amounts of phlobaphene pigments. This led to the 2007 harvest being one of the most profitable maize crops in modern history for farmers. Maize is used as a fish bait, called "dough balls". Maize or Corn, also known by its scientific name Zea mays, is a plant belonging to the family of grasses. The increase in food prices the consumer has been seeing is mainly due to the higher energy cost. Setosphaeria turcica; the asexual stage name is Exserohilum turcicum. Kingdom: Plantae.  Corn on the cob was hawked on the streets of early 19th-century New York City by poor, barefoot "Hot Corn Girls", who were thus the precursors of hot dog carts, churro wagons, and fruit stands seen on the streets of big cities today.. Species: Z. mays. Glyphosate is an herbicide which kills all plants except those with genetic tolerance. How to use maize in a sentence. However, in commodities trading, corn consistently refers to maize and not other grains. Maize starch can be hydrolyzed and enzymatically treated to produce syrups, particularly high fructose corn syrup, a sweetener; and also fermented and distilled to produce grain alcohol. Maize green forage. Are They Development Strategies? The program began in the 1980s. ", CBOT Corn Futures Contract Overview via Wikinvest, "National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28", "Nutrition facts, calories in food, labels, nutritional information and analysis", "USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors, Release 6", "The origins of maize: the puzzle of pellagra", "Nutrients involved in energy metabolism", "Managing Sweet Corn Pests in Massachusetts", List of top international rankings by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maize&oldid=994176974, Crops originating from indigenous Americans, Crops originating from Pre-Columbian North America, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2014, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Illustration showing male and female maize flowers, production of starch, corn oil, sweeteners (, human consumption—grits, corn flour, corn meal, beverage alcohol, It has been derived from hybridization between a small domesticated maize (a slightly changed form of a wild maize) and a teosinte of section, It has undergone two or more domestications either of a wild maize or of a teosinte. lapsa (stalk rot), Pseudomonas syringae pv. Modern farming techniques in developed countries usually rely on dense planting, which produces one ear per stalk. Philippine downy mildew of maize; Other Scientific Names. An unusual use for maize is to create a "corn maze" (or "maize maze") as a tourist attraction. Immature maize shoots accumulate a powerful antibiotic substance, 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA). However, little of this maize is eaten directly by humans. , CIMMYT operates a conventional breeding program to provide optimized strains.  There is conflicting evidence to support the hypothesis that maize yield potential has increased over the past few decades. Popcorn (popped corn, popcorns or pop-corn) is a variety of corn kernel which expands and puffs up when heated; the same names are also used to refer to the foodstuff produced by the expansion.. A popcorn kernel's strong hull contains the seed's hard, starchy shell endosperm with 14–20% moisture, which turns to steam as the kernel is heated. :10 It is supported experimentally and by recent studies of the plants' genomes. /* unofficial, When maize was first introduced into farming systems other than those used by traditional native-American peoples, it was generally welcomed with enthusiasm for its productivity. corn. The resulting DNA sequence data was deposited immediately into GenBank, a public repository for genome-sequence data. They feature a large hopper that feeds the uniformly sized maize kernels (or wood pellets or cherry pits) into the fire. Field maize is left in the field until very late in the autumn to thoroughly dry the grain, and may, in fact, sometimes not be harvested until winter or even early spring. In the United States, maize ears along with tobacco leaves are carved into the capitals of columns in the United States Capitol building. 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